In many families, fathers take pride in receiving remarks regarding their sons such as “He’s a chip off the ol’ block” or “like father like son,” often exalting the sons who have followed in their fathers’ vocational footsteps. In “Digging,” by Seamus Heaney, the speaker describes the quintessential potato farming tradition that his father and grandfather partake in, while the speaker himself observes through a window barrier. Seamus Heaney, through his use of imagery, repetition, and extended metaphors, reveals his feelings in straying away from Irish tradition to follow his own path in writing.
In his poem, Heaney utilizes imagery to further emphasize the speaker’s action in choosing a different job than potato farming. The speaker begins at a windowsill, with a “squat pen” resting “as snug as a gun” in his hand. Heaney’s description connotes a sense of defense, almost as if the narrator sees himself as an old wilderness-survival junkie, sitting on the porch with a gun to defend his property from government officials, but in “Digging,” the speaker defends his choice in jobs. Later on in the poem, the speaker describes the actions of a potato harvester, who must endure the “cold smell of potato mold [and] the squelch and slap of soggy peat.” Heaney’s images of mold and soggy mud convey the speaker’s true feeling and apprehension toward the sickening, gross environment in which his father and grandfather work.
In the same way, Heaney’s repetition further alludes to the speaker’s need and desire to write. In the first and last stanzas of the poem, the speaker repeats the same sentence: “Between my finger and my thumb / The squat pen rests.” As a starting point in the poem, the speaker directly jumps to his comfort zone—describing his love for putting pen to paper, yet as an ending note, the narrator reemphasizes his possession of not only the pen, but of his life choices.
Also, Heaney often uses the word “digging” as a separate prepositional phrase during a sentence, reiterating the word to simply give the reader a sense of the mundane life his father is living. There are no adverbs surrounding the word; simply put, the speaker evokes a sense of nothingness that is associated with “digging” a hole in the ground, only to fill said hole with a potato and cover it back up—a menial task for which he has no inclination. Again, Heaney repeats some phrases in order to accentuate his aversion to the job of potato harvesting.
Lastly, Heaney implements extended metaphors throughout his poem to subtly convey his feelings towards his father’s tradition. As stated earlier, the repetition of “digging” also connotes a deeper meaning—the speaker, while also observing his father literally dig through the mud and peat, figuratively digs through his memories of his family, recalling the days when he would help his grandfather out in “Toner’s bog.”
In the second to last verse, the speaker alludes to revisiting the past by stating the “living roots awaken in my head.” The roots, although they can refer to the physical roots in the ground, symbolize the narrator’s family roots in potato farming, a culture that is associated with digging into the ground to find food and money in the form of potatoes. In the end, the speaker ends the metaphor of digging, noting he will “dig,” but not with the spade, but with his pen.
Seamus Heaney’s poem “Digging” tells a tale of a man musing about his decision to leave behind family convention. Heaney employs a series of images that convey the speaker’s feelings, repetition to show the narrator’s dislike of potato harvesting, and metaphors to provide an underlying message about tradition. In the end, the speaker is left commenting on the spade, his father and grandfather’s tool of choice, while he himself chooses the pen.
Seamus Heaney 1939–
(Full name Seamus Justin Heaney) Irish poet, critic, essayist, editor, and translator.
Heaney is widely considered Ireland's most accomplished contemporary poet and has often been called the greatest Irish poet since William Butler Yeats. In his works, Heaney often focuses on the proper roles and responsibilities of a poet in society, exploring themes of self-discovery and spiritual growth as well as addressing political and cultural issues related to Irish history. His poetry is characterized by sensuous language, sexual metaphors, and nature imagery. Soon after he won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1995, commentator Helen Vendler praised Heaney "the Irish poet whose pen has been the conscience of his country."
The eldest of nine children, Heaney was raised a Roman Catholic in Mossbawn, County Derry, a rural community in Protestant Northern Ireland. At age eleven he received a scholarship to Saint Columb's College in Londonderry, Northern Ireland, and left his father's farm. At Queen's University in Belfast, he was introduced to Irish, American, and English literature and exposed to artists such as Ted Hughes, Patrick Kavanaugh, and Robert Frost. While at university, Heaney contributed several poems to literary magazines under the pen name Incertus. After graduating with honors in 1961, he taught secondary school, later returning to Queen's University as a lecturer. During this time he also established himself as a prominent literary figure with the publication of Death of a Naturalist in 1966, his first volume of poetry. In 1969, when fighting broke out between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Heaney began to address the unrest's causes and effects in his poetry. He and his family moved to a cottage outside Dublin in 1972, where he wrote full-time until he accepted a teaching position at Caryfort College in Dublin in 1975. He has also taught at Harvard and Oxford Universities and has frequently traveled to the United States and England to give poetry readings and lectures. Having already won numerous awards for his poetry and translations, Heaney was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1995.
Heaney's first volume, Death of a Naturalist (1966), is imbued with the colors of his Derry childhood; these early works evince sensuous memories associated with nature
and with his childhood on his family's farm. Evoking the care with which his father and ancestors farmed the land, Heaney announces in the first poem in the collection, "Digging," that he will figuratively "dig" with his pen. In his next published volume, Door into the Dark (1969), Heaney also incorporates nature and his childhood as prominent themes.
Much of Heaney's poetry addresses the history of social unrest in Northern Ireland and considers the relevance of poetry in the face of violence and political upheaval. In his next collection Wintering Out, for example, are a series of "bog poems" that were inspired by the archaeological excavation of Irish peat bogs containing preserved human bodies that had been ritually slaughtered during the Iron Age. Heaney depicts the victims of such ancient pagan rites as symbolic of the bloodshed caused by contemporary violence in Ireland. North (1975) develops this historical theme further, using myth to widen its universality. In such poems as "Ocean's Love to Ireland" and "Act of Union," Heaney portrays the English colonization of Ireland as an act of violent sexual conquest. Field Work (1979) does not depart from Heaney's outrage at the violence in Northern Ireland but shifts to a more personal tone. The collection encompasses a wide range of subjects: love and marriage, mortality, and the regenerative powers of self-determination and the poetic imagination.
Translating Sweeney Astray (1984) from the Irish tale Buile Suibhne allowed Heaney to work with myth, for he brings to the English-speaking world the warrior-king Sweeney's adventures after a curse has transformed him into a bird. Station Island (1984) is also concerned with Irish history and myth. Patterned after Dante's Divine Comedy in its tripartite structure, the central section describes a threeday pilgrimage taken by Catholics to the Irish Station Island seeking spiritual renewal. There the narrator encounters the souls of his dead ancestors and Irish literary figures who speak to him, stirring from him a meditation on his life and art.
The Haw Lantern (1987) contains both parables of Irish life and poems such as "From the Republic of Conscience" and "From the Canton of Expectation." This volume also includes a series of poems entitled "Clearances," which chronicles his relationship with his mother. In Seeing Things (1991) Heaney diverges from his previous emphasis on politics and civic responsibility, returning to the autobiographical themes of childhood experience and Irish community ritual. Feelings of loss and yearning are prominent motifs in the collection, as many poems evoke celebratory images of Heaney's deceased father, who appears frequently throughout the volume.
Critics of Heaney's early work were immediately impressed by his freshness of expression and command of detail. He has been praised for his political poems, especially those that depict the violence between Roman Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. In these poems, it has been noted that Heaney also addresses Ireland's cultural tensions and divisions through the linguistic duality of his poetry, which draws upon both Irish and English literary traditions. Critical commentary has traced the thematic development of Heaney's work, contending that as his later poems continue to address the unrest in Northern Ireland, they also incorporate a more personal tone as Heaney depicts the loss of friends and relatives to the violence. As his most recent work diverges from his previous emphasis on politics and civic responsibility, Heaney returns to the autobiographical themes of childhood experience and Irish community ritual. Many critics have lauded these poems for their imaginative qualities and their focus on visionary transcendence experienced through ordinary life events.
Heaney has been commended for his experimentation with form and style, in particular in the volumes Seeing Things and Station Island. His efforts to integrate meaning and sound often result in vivid descriptions, witty metaphors, and assonant phrasing. By most critics he is acclaimed as one of the foremost poets of his generation and is very favorably compared to such poets as Derek Mahon, Michael Longley, Michael Hartnett, and Ted Hughes.