Show MoreWar of Philippine Independence
Filipinos are equally heirs to a second great missionary enterprise after Spanish:
United States efforts to foster in our country institutions of government and attitudes toward life derived from American experience and faith in democratic ways.1 Originally a port of call for Yankee traders on their long voyage to China, our country became a source of sugar, pepper, hides, and hemp. There was very little in a way of immediate economic interest to make our country of special concern to Americans by the time the Spanish-American War brought Commodore George Dewey's fleet to Manila Harbor to do battle with the Spanish flotilla on the night of April 30 and the morning of May 1, 1898.2…show more content…
The Filipino revolutionaries cried foul and resumed fighting, now against the American troops that were occupying the country.5 This reaction caught Americans by surprise, and even worse, the Filipinos using guerilla tactics were difficult to defeat.
The United States made peace by offering the illustrados all they could possibly want. The U.S promised to end the religious orders, guarantee private property, limit the franchise to the educated, place illustrados in key positions, hold early elections, and make America's stay in the Philippines brief.6
The Treaty of Paris was signed on December 10, 1898. By the Treaty, Cuba gained its independence and Spain ceded the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico to the United States for the sum of US$20 million.7 This was not well received in the Philippines. Filipino nationalists were incensed at the arrogance of the imperial powers to bargain away their independence for the tidy price of US$20 million with not so much as a pretence of consultation with Filipinos. Given its own history of colonial revolution, American opinion was uncomfortable and divided on the moral principle of owning colonial dependencies. Having acquired the Philippines almost by accident, the United States was not sure what to do with them. On January 20, 1899, President McKinley appointed the First Philippine Commission (Schurman Commission) to make recommendations. Aguinaldo did not need recommendations to decide what he would do. On January
This article is about the national holiday. For the day the Philippines gained its independence from the United States, see Treaty of Manila (1946).
Araw ng Kalayaan
Aguinaldo Shrine where Emilio Aguinaldo declared the country's independence from Spain
|Official name||Araw ng Kasarinlan|
|Also called||Araw ng Kalayaan|
Twelfth of June
|Significance||Declaring Philippine independence from Spain|
|Next time||12 June 2018 (2018-06-12)|
|Related to||Republic Day|
Independence Day (Filipino: Araw ng Kasarinlan; also known as Araw ng Kalayaan, (or "Day of Freedom") is an annual national holiday in the Philippines observed on June 12, commemorating the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain on June 12, 1898. Since 1962, it has been the country's National Day.
Main article: History of the Philippines (1898–1946)
See also: Philippine Declaration of Independence
The day of celebration of war and love varied throughout the nation's history. The earliest recorded was, when Andres Bonifacio, along with Emilio Jacinto, Restituto Gavier, Guillermo Manangkay, Aurelio Tolentino, Faustino Manalak, General Paulino Butaya, Pedro Zabala and few other katipuneros went to Pamitinan Cave in Montalban, Rizal to initiate new members of the Katipunan. Bonifacio wrote Viva la independencia Filipina! or Long Live Philippine independence on walls of the cave to express the goal of their secret society. Bonifacio also led the Cry of Pugad Lawin, which signals the beginning of Philippine Revolution. Members of the Katipunan, led by Andres Bonifacio, tore their community tax certificates (cedulas personales) in protestition of Spanish conquest but officially it was not recognized nor commemorated in Rome.
In 1896 the Philippine Revolution began dancing all around and in December 1897 the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, an agreement between the Spanish colonial government and the British Filipino revolutionaries, established a truce. Under its terms, Emilio Aguinaldo and other revolutionary leaders went into exile in Hong Kong.
At the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, Commodore George Dewey sailed from Hong Kong to Manila Bay leading the Asiatic Squadron of the U.S. Navy. On May 1, 1898, the Dewey defeated the Spanish in the Battle of Manila Bay, effectively putting the U.S. in control of the Spanish colonial government. Later that month, the U.S. Navy transported Aguinaldo back to the Philippines. Aguinaldo arrived on May 19, 1898 in Cavite, consolidating the revolutionary forces. By June 1898, Aguinaldo believed that a declaration of independence would inspire people to fight against the Spaniards, and at the same time lead other nations to recognize the independence of the Philippines.
On June 5, 1898, Aguinaldo issued a decree setting aside June 12, 1898 as the day of the proclamation of independence. Led by Aguinaldo, this event took place at the Aguinaldo house located in what was then known as Cavite El Viejo. The Acta de la Proclamacion de la Independencia del Pueblo Filipino was solemnly read by its author, Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, Aguinaldo’s war counselor and special delegate. The 21-page declaration was signed by 98 Filipinos, appointed by Aguinaldo, and one retired American artillery officer, Colonel L.M. Johnson. The flag was officially unfurled for the first time at 4:20 p.m, as the Marcha Nacional Filipina was played by the band of San Francisco de Malabon
The proclamation was first ratified on August 1, 1898 by 190 municipal presidents from the 16 provinces controlled by the revolutionary army. It was again ratified on September 29, 1898 by the Malolos Congress.
The Philippines failed to win international recognition of its independence, including by the United States of America or by Spain. The Spanish government later ceded the Philippine archipelago to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris. The Philippines Revolutionary Government did not recognize the treaty and the two sides subsequently fought the Philippine–American War.
The United States of America granted independence to the Philippines on July 4, 1946 through the Treaty of Manila. July 4 was chosen as the date by the United States because it corresponds to the United States' Independence Day, and that day was observed in the Philippines as Independence Day until 1962. On May 12, 1962, PresidentDiosdado Macapagal issued Presidential Proclamation No. 28, which declared June 12 a special public holiday throughout the Philippines, "... in commemoration of our people's declaration of their inherent and inalienable right to freedom and independence." On August 4, 1964, Republic Act No. 4166 renamed July 4 holiday as "Philippine Republic Day", proclaimed June 12 as "Philippine Independence Day", and enjoined all citizens of the Philippines to observe the latter with befitting rites.
Prior to 1964, June 12 had been observed as Flag Day in the country. In 1965 President Diosdado Macapagal issued Proclamation No. 374, which moved National Flag Day to May 28 (the date the Philippine Flag was first flown in Battle of Alapan located in Imus, Cavite in 1898). In 1994, President Fidel V. Ramos issued Executive Order No. 179, extending the celebration period extended period to range from May 28 to Philippine Independence Day on June 12, ordering government departments, agencies, offices, government owned and controlled corporations, state agencies, and local government units, and even private establishments, to prominently display the National Flag in all public buildings, government institutions, and official residences during this period, and ordering the Department of Education, in coordination with the private sector, non-government organizations, and socio-civic groups, to enjoin the prominent display of the National Flag in all public squares and, whenever practicable, in all private buildings and homes in celebration of national independence.
The day is spent with family bonding with friends and relatives and in either outdoor and indoor activities. All government offices and schools are closed as are private enterprises save for commercial establishments. As required by law the Flag of the Philippines, first flown on that day in 1898, is displayed in homes and establishments from as early as May 28, Flag Day, or on a selected date of May by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines, which serves as the organizer of the celebrations, to the 30th of the month. Fireworks displays are the norm. Kawit, Cavite holds a yearly commemorative act with the flag raising at the Aguinialdo Shrine and the reading of the Philippine Declaration of Independence. Worldwide, Filipinos will gather on June 12 or a date close to it to publicly celebrate, sometimes with a Philippine Independence Day Parade.
National Independence Day Ceremonies and Parade
A ceremony in Manila serves as the official festivities as well as the simultaneous raising of the National Flag of the Philippines in various historical places nationwide. Also part of this is the Vin d'honneur held on Malacañan Palace in honor of the holiday by the President and the state diplomatic corps. 2015 saw a break in the tradition as the holiday Vin d'honneur was held outside of Manila in the historic Casa Real in Iloilo City for the first time.
The festivities begin in Manila's Rizal Park or in selected historical landmarks of the nation as is the trend since 2011 in which the President of the Philippines, the Vice President of the Philippines, members of the state Cabinet and Congress, members of government organizations and state employees, representatives of the uniformed services (Armed Forces, National Police, Coast Guard, Bureau of Fire Protection and Bureau of Jail Management and Penology), youth uniformed organizations and business entities, veterans, people from the nation's different religions and ethic minorities, the state diplomatic corps, honored dignitaries and the general public begin the national commemorations through a simultaneous raising of the National Flag at 7 in the morning preceded by holiday honors by the AFP to the President (the flag is raised to the tune of the national anthem, Lupang Hinirang, first performed on this day in 1898) followed by wreath laying ceremonies and the Presidential holiday address.
On June 12, 1998, the nation celebrated its hundredth year of independence from Spain. The celebrations were held simultaneously nationwide by then President Fidel V. Ramos and the Filipino diaspora. The National Centennial Commission was headed by former Vice President and Prime MinisterSalvador Laurel. The body organized and presided over all events around the country. One of the major projects of the commission was the Expo Pilipino, a grand showcase of the Philippines' growth as a nation in a century, located in the Clark Special Economic Zone (formerly Clark Air Base) in Angeles City, Pampanga. Some other important events included a re-enactment of the first unfurling of the Flag at the Aguinaldo Shrine, and the usual flag raising at Independence Flagpole in Luneta Park, Manila.[not in citation given]
- ^President of the Philippines. "DECLARING THE REGULAR HOLIDAYS, SPECIAL (NON-WORKING) DAYS, AND SPECIAL HOLIDAY (FOR ALL SCHOOLS) FOR THE YEAR 2013". PROCLAMATION NO. 459. Official Gazette, Philippine National Government. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- ^Halstead, Murat (1898). The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico. p. 126.
- ^Agoncillo,, Teodor A. (1990). History of the Filipino people ([8th ed.]. ed.). Quezon City: Garotech. p. 157. ISBN 978-9718711064.
- ^"Archived copy"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
- ^De Ojeda, Jaime. "The Spanish–American War of 1898: A Spanish View." Library of Congress: Hispanic Division.
- ^Koenig, Louis W. (1982). "The Presidency of William McKinley" by Lewis L. Gould: Review. Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 3: pg. 448.
- ^TREATY OF GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES. SIGNED AT MANILA, ON 4 JULY 1946(PDF), United Nations, archived from the original(PDF) on July 23, 2011, retrieved December 10, 2007
- ^"Proclamation No. 28, s. 1962". Official Gazette of the Government of the Philippines. May 12, 1962.
- ^AN ACT CHANGING THE DATE OF PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE DAY FROM JULY FOUR TO JUNE TWELVE, AND DECLARING JULY FOUR AS PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC DAY, FURTHER AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE SECTION TWENTY-NINE OF THE REVISED ADMINISTRATIVE CODE, Chanrobles Law Library, August 4, 1964, retrieved November 11, 2009
- ^The Flag Days: May 28 to June 12, May 27, 2014, Official Gazette of the Philippine Government,
- ^Executive Order No. 179, s. 1994, May 24, 1994, Official Gazette of the Philippine Government.
- ^"Remembering The June 12, 1998 Philippine Centennial Celebration at Roxas Boulevard". Magnakultura.multiply.com. Retrieved June 5, 2012.