Water pollution refers to the mixing of contaminants or pollutants in to the water bodies (sea, lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, etc) through direct or indirect discharges causes environmental degradation and affects whole biosphere (human beings, animals, plants and organisms living in water).
Essay on Water Pollution
Water pollution is the main issue affecting human lives in many ways. We all should know the causes, effects and preventive measures of the water pollution to make our lives better. Let your kids participate in some creative activities in their schools and colleges to increase awareness about the water pollution in the society. Here we have provided some easily written essay on water pollution for students. They can select any water pollution essay according to the need and requirement:
Water Pollution Essay 1 (100 words)
Water pollution has become a continuous increasing problem on the earth which is affecting the human and animal lives in all aspects. Water pollution is the contamination of drinking water by the poisonous pollutants generated by the human activities. The whole water is getting polluted through many sources such as urban runoff, agricultural, industrial, sedimentary, leeching from landfills, animal wastes, and other human activities. All the pollutants are very harmful to the environment. Human population is increasing day by day and thus their needs and competition leading pollution to the top level. We need to follow some drastic changes in our habits to save the earth water as well as continue the possibility of life here.
Water Pollution Essay 2 (150 words)
Water pollution is the most dangerous and worst form of pollution putting lives in danger. The water we drink daily looks very clear however contains verities of microscopic pollutants floating in it. Our earth is covered with water (almost 70% of total) so a little change in it could affect lives worldwide.
The highest level of water pollution is caused by the pollutants come from agriculture field because of the high use of fertilizers, insecticides, and pesticides to enhance the production of crops. We need to bring vast improvements in the type of chemicals we use in the agriculture. Oil is another big pollutant polluting the water. Leaked oil from the land or rivers, oil transport through ships, ship crashes, etc flows to the sea or ocean and affecting whole water. Other hydrocarbon particles get settled down through rain water from air to ocean or sea water. Other toxic wastes through leakage of landfills, old mines, dumps, sewage, industrial wastes, and farms get mixed to the water.
Water Pollution Essay 3 (200 words)
The level of fresh drinking water is becoming less day by day on the earth. There is a limited availability of drinking water on the earth however that too is getting polluted because of human activities. It is tough to estimate the possibility of life on the earth in the absence of fresh drinking water. Water pollution is the mixing of foreign substances by means of organic, inorganic, biological and radiological in the water degrading the quality and usefulness of water.
Hazardous pollutants may contain various types of impurities including harmful chemicals, dissolved gases, suspended matters, dissolved minerals, and even microbes. All the contaminants reduce the level of dissolved oxygen in the water and affecting the lives of animals and human beings to a great extent. Dissolved oxygen is the oxygen present in water required by the aquatic system to continue the lives of plants and animals. However biochemical oxygen is the demanded oxygen by the aerobic micro-organisms to oxidize organic matters of wastes. Water pollution is caused by two means, one is natural water pollution (due to the leaching of rocks, decay of organic matters, decay of dead matters, silting, soil erosion, etc) and another one is man-made water pollution (due to the deforestation, set up of industries near large water bodies, high level emission of industrial wastes, domestic sewage, synthetic chemicals, radio-active wastes, fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides etc).
Water Pollution Essay 4 (250 words)
Fresh water is the most important source of life on the earth. Any living thing may survive without food for days however it is impossible to imagine life without water and oxygen. The ever increasing human population enhances the demand of more water for purposes like drinking, washing, performing industrial processes, irrigating crops, arranging swimming pools and other water-sports centres. Water pollution is done by the people of all over the world because of increasing demands and competitions of luxuries life. Waste products from many human activities are spoiling the whole water and decreasing the amount of oxygen available in the water. Such pollutants are altering the physical, chemical, thermal, and biological characteristics of the water and adversely affecting the lives inside as well as outside the water.
When we drink the polluted water, harmful chemicals and other pollutants goes inside our body and deteriorates all the body organs functioning and puts our lives in danger. Such harmful chemicals also disturb the lives of animals and plants greatly. When plants absorb dirty water through their roots, they stop growing and die. Thousands of seabirds are killing because of the oil spilling from ships and industries. High level of water pollution is done due to the chemicals coming out of the agricultural usage of fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides. The effect of water pollution varies from place to place upon the type and amount of water contamination. The degradation of drinking water needs an urgent basis prevention method which is possible by the proper understanding and support from the end of each and every person living on the earth.
Water Pollution Essay 5 (300 words)
Water is the most important need of the life on the earth. It makes possible the possibility of any forms of life here and their existence. It maintains the ecological balance in the biosphere. Clean water is very necessary for fulfilling the purpose of drinking, bathing, washing, power generation, irrigation of crops, disposal of sewage, manufacturing processes and many more. Increasing human population causes rapid industrialization and unplanned urbanization which are releasing lots wastes into the small and large water bodies which ultimately degrades the quality of water. The mixing of such pollutants directly and continuously into the water bodies decreases the self purifying capacity of the water by declining the ozone (which kills harmful microorganisms) available in the water.
Contamination of water deteriorates the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of the water which is very harmful to the human beings, animals and plants all over the world. Most of the important animals and plants species have been lost because of the water contamination. It is a global issue affecting the lives in both developed and developing countries. Whole water is getting polluted to a great level because mining, agriculture, fisheries, stockbreeding, various industries, urban human activities, urbanization, increasing number of manufacturing industries, domestic sewage, etc.
There are many sources of the water pollution (point source and nonpoint or diffused source) depending on the specificity of waste materials discharged from various sources. Point sources includes pipelines, ditches, sewers, etc from industries, sewage treatment plants, landfills, hazardous waste sites, leakage from oil storage tanks which discharges wastes directly into the water bodies. Diffused sources of the water pollution are agricultural fields, live-stock feed lots, parking lot and streets into surface water, storm runoff from urban streets, etc which pours their discharged pollutants over the larger areas water bodies. Non-point source pollution contributes highly to the water pollution which is very difficult and expensive to control.
Water Pollution Essay 6 (400 words)
Water pollution is the big environmental and social issue all across the world. It has reached to the critical point now. According to the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur, it has been noted that around 70 per cent of the river water has been polluted to a great extent. Major river systems of the India such as Ganga, Brahmaputra, Indus, peninsular, and west coast river systems have been affected to a great extent. Major rivers in India especially Ganga is highly associated with the Indian culture and heritage. People generally used to take early morning bath and use Ganga Jal as an offering to the God and Goddess during any festival and fast occasion. They also discharge all the wastes of puja ceremony in the Ganga in the myth of completing their puja.
Discharging of wastes in the rivers causes water pollution by decreasing the self recycling capacity of the water so it should be banned by the government in all countries especially India in order to keep the river water clean and fresh. The condition of water pollution is much worse in the India than other countries having high level of industrialization. As per the report of Central Pollution Control Board, Ganga is the most polluted river in India now which was very famous earlier for its flexibility of self purifying capacity and fast-flowing river. Around 45 tanneries and 10 textile mills are discharging their wastes (containing heavy organic load and decomposed materials) directly into the river near Kanpur. According to the estimates, approximately 1,400 million litres sewage and 200 million litres industrial effluents are getting discharged continuously on daily basis into the river Ganga.
Other main industries causing water pollution are sugar mills, distillery, glycerine, tin, paints, soap spinning, rayon, silk, yarn, etc which are discharging poisonous wastes. In 1984, a Central Ganga Authority was established by the government to start the Ganga Action Plan in order to control the Ganga water pollution. According to this plan around 120 factories were identified in 27 cities spreading pollution to a great extent from Haridwar to Hooghly. Gomati river near Lucknow is receiving wastes of around 19.84 million gallons from the factories of pulp, paper, distillery, sugar, tannery, textile, cement, heavy chemicals, paints and varnishes etc. The condition has become more deteriorating in the last four decades. In order to prevent the water pollution all the industries should follow standard norms, strict laws should be enforced by the Pollution Control Board, arrangement of proper sewage disposal facilities, establishment of sewage and water treatment plant, arrangement of sulabh type toilets and may more.
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The movement of goods from one place to another is called transport. Transport removes the hindrances of persons, place and time in exchange of goods and commodities. Effective transport plays an important role in the economic progress of the country.
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The various modes of transport can be classified into three main divisions:
- Land Transport
- Water Transport
- Air Transport
The chief forms of land transport are:
I. Pathways Transport: Pathways are an important form of land transport. It is the oldest form of transport found in hilly areas, forest areas and in remote places. These are used by human beings and animals for transport. In forest and hilly areas transport is carried on through human beings. Animal transport has also played a significant role where there is no road and railway communication.
II. Roadways Transport: The Road is in every truth one of the great fundamental institutions of mankind. Its history dates back to the dawn of recorded history and beyond…. A people without the attributes of civilization. Man, the road builder, cannot be separated from Man, the builder of civilizations.
III. Tramways Transport: Tram cars, which are run on rails, are a very suitable mode of transport for carrying traffic during busy hours.
IV. Railways Transport: The railway has been the pioneer of modern mechanical transport. The first Indian railway train rolled on its 34 km track from Bombay to Thana on April 16, 1853. Right since its beginning and upto the advent of motor transport, it enjoyed monopoly as land transport. Railways have played a very significant role in the economic, social and political development of many countries in the world. Though the railway requires a very huge capital outlay as compared to other modes of transport, it is our principal means of transport. It carries about 70 to 80 percent of our total traffic of goods and people.
Water transport is the cheapest and the oldest mode of transport. It operates on a natural track and hence does not require huge capital investment in the construction and maintenance of its track except in case of canals. The cost of operation of water transport is also very less. It has the largest carrying capacity and is most suitable for carrying bulky goods over long distances. It has played a very significant role by bringing different parts of the world closer and is indispensable to foreign trade.
Kinds of water Transport
Water transport consists of:
I. Inland water transport: Inland water transport consists of transport by rivers, canals and lakes. Rivers are a natural highway which can be used as a means of transport. They are suitable for small boats as well as big barges. River transport played a very important role prior to the development of modern means of land transport.
II. Ocean Transport: Ocean transport is indispensable for the foreign trade. It has brought the different parts of the world closer and has knit together all the nations of the world into one big world market. It operates on a natural track i.e., the sea and does not require any investment in the construction and maintenance of its track. It is obviously, the cheapest mode of transport, Ocean transport includes (i) Coastal Shipping (ii) Overseas Shipping.
Air transport is the most recent mode of transport. It is the gift of the 20th century to the world. The two world wars gave a great impetus to the development of air transport in almost all the countries of the world. The peculiar characteristic of air transport is that it does not need a specific surface track for its operations. It has no physical barriers as in the case of other modes of transport. Political boundaries are also immaterial although it has to observe the requirements of the International Law. The supreme advantage of air transport lies in its quickness. It is the fastest mode of transport. But the cost of its operation is very high and thus it is suitable for only rich passengers, mails and light and costly cargo. However, in advanced countries like U.S.A., Germany, etc. it offers a tough competition to the railway.